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If you are a human, ignore this field. Your Offer. Remember me. New Client Register for more access. Be the first to know about new items. James was the son of Elizabeth's cousin and great rival, Mary, Queen of Scots. He inherited the English throne after Elizabeth's death in At the Restoration of the monarchy in , Cooper's reputation quickly earned him the patronage of Charles II and his family.

His position as the leading miniaturist was confirmed when in he was appointed the king's limner. Competition came from Richard Gibson, who became the king's miniaturist after Cooper's death in Younger rivals included Nicholas Dixon and Peter Cross. Dixon blended his brushstrokes for a glossy finish, while Peter Cross created a soft-focus effect with delicate touches and dots.

James was the brother of Charles II. This miniature possibly celebrates Charles's return from exile or James's secret marriage to Anne Hyde, who was Catholic. Both events took place in Henrietta Anne , the youngest daughter of Charles I, grew up in exile in France. Samuel Cooper about Portrait of an unknown man About Watercolour on vellum, stuck to a table-book leaf Museum no.

Richard Gibson Portrait of an unknown boy About —5 Watercolour on vellum, stuck to pasteboard Museum no. The first British artist to paint on ivory was Bernard Lens, in about At the same time that ivory replaced vellum, miniatures tended to become smaller. This was probably because of the difficulty of using watercolour on ivory.

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Another reason might have been the fashion for enamel portraits, which were small. Miniature painting was now an established genteel pastime. Until the s most miniaturists had no professional training. Penelope Carwardine was an amateur turned professional, while Gervase Spencer, originally a footman, and Samuel Cotes, an apothecary pharmacist , were both self-taught.

Many were not even full-time miniaturists.

Luke Sullivan was an engraver and Thomas Frye ran the Bow porcelain factory. Lens' Museum no. Lens copied the striking blue background from Elizabethan miniatures, which he often restored and re-framed for patrons. Zincke made this' and dated '' Museum no. This is possibly of Arabella Fermor , a famous London society beauty. She was the heroine of Alexander Pope 's humorous poem, 'The Rape of the Lock', about the theft of a lock of her hair.

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In the early 18th century miniaturists had experimented with ways to make it easier to paint on ivory with watercolour. These included roughening the ivory, degreasing it and making the paint stickier. Jeremiah Meyer then exploited the advances made by his predecessors and showed other artists the possibilities of working on ivory.

In the late s a number of young artists became miniaturists, including Richard Cosway, John Smart and Richard Crosse, all born around From the age of 14, these boys took lessons at William Shipley 's new drawing school, the first such school in London. Arthur Wellesley was created 1st Duke of Wellington in This miniature was painted at the outset of the Peninsular War, in which Wellesley commanded the Allied forces against the French.

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In a group of London-based artists established the Royal Academy of Arts. At the Academy's annual exhibitions miniaturists displayed their tiny works in a room crowded with large oil paintings. Many painted larger pieces and celebrity sitters to catch people's eye. Others emulated the full-length poses and rich colour of oils.

Growing national wealth encouraged the market for portraiture. Numerous young artists took up miniature painting, offering clients keepsakes of their loved ones. Many, like the Scotsman John Bogle, came to London to find work, but Thomas Hazlehurst found a lucrative market in his booming hometown, Liverpool.


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James Scouler about Portrait of an unknown woman as 'A Sibyl' Watercolour on ivory Signed lower right 'Scouler' and dated '' Museum no. A sybil was a prophetess in classical mythology. Sir Joshua Reynolds, first president of the Royal Academy, made it fashionable for ladies to be painted in mythological roles. Scouler exhibited 'A Sibyl' at the Royal Academy in Mrs Siddons was the leading British tragic actress.

Her parents had led a troupe of travelling actors and many of her family also became noted actors. Crosse exhibited a miniature of 'Mrs Siddons' at the Royal Academy in John Dyer Collier was a writer and the editor of two periodicals, the Monthly Review and the Critical Review.

He was friends with many literary figures, including the poet William Wordsworth. To set up a business in either Madras or Calcutta they needed the permission of the East India Company, the trading company that effectively ran these areas at this date. Although some of their sitters were local dignitaries, most were British.

enter site They included employees of the Company and their families. With miniaturists based in India, the exchange of portraits between Britain and India became cheap and easy. They could be posted or carried home by a friend or relative. At the back of the gold locket is a hair insert in the form of a plaited cross and the letters 'ER' Museum no. Gifford Scott. This miniature of an unknown Indian man is inscribed with the letter 'I'. Smart identified all the miniatures he painted in India in this way. Jonas, in memory of his wife, Rosa Maud Jonas. He mixed frequently with Europeans and commissioned work from western artists living in Madras.

Around the young artist Andrew Robertson developed a new style of miniature painting that became the dominant style of the mid 19th century. Robertson deliberately set himself against Richard Cosway, the fashionable miniaturist of the previous generation. He called Cosway's miniatures 'pretty things but not pictures', and despised his followers. Robertson's new style brought together elements that had been explored by previous miniaturists. These included a larger ivory, a rectangular format and the addition of more gum to imitate the richness of oil paint. But his large, densely painted miniatures were labour intensive so Robertson mostly painted smaller miniatures for a living.


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