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Although they never met, the two mycologists corresponded for thirty years, with Banning becoming a member of Peck's network of collectors, and Peck assuming the role of teacher and mentor to Banning. Peck oversaw the publication of Banning's first fungal taxon— Polyporus beatiei —in his botanical report of the NYS for Peck also published sixteen taxa with Banning based on her specimens. Banning described five species in her own right e. Banning a. In related text she included observations on the morphology, taxonomic relationships, and life cycle of fungi, and tales of her adventures in finding specimens.
These included dealing with rugged terrain, and the suspicion of locals about her activities. For her part, Banning felt sorry for the workman, pitying the ignorance that kept him from appreciating fungi Haines In , Banning began to prepare an illustrated book on the fungi of Maryland. Haines : Although she completed the manuscript in , it was never published, and languished for nearly a century at the NYS before a selection of her colourful illustrations, accompanied by her entertaining field-notes was put on exhibition Haines : Banning spent the final years of her life in boarding houses in Virginia, becoming increasingly isolated and constrained by ill health and poverty.
She died in in her eighty-first year and was buried in Baltimore Creese a : Her own collection of drawings and specimens seems to have been lost when she was obliged to move out of her mother's home in Baltimore. Peck named a species of fungus for her in based on one of her collections Hypomyces banningiae Peck b. In , she was given posthumous recognition for her pioneering work in mycology when she was elected to the Maryland Women's Hall of Fame Creese a : Banning ME Notes on the fungi of Maryland. Field and Forest 3: 42—47, 59— Banning ME a. New species of fungi found in Maryland.
Botanical Gazette 6 1 : — Banning ME b. Maryland Fungi, I. Botanical Gazette 6 4 : — Banning ME c. Maryland Fungi, II. Botanical Gazette 6 5 : — The Tuckahoe. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 9: — See also: Banning — The fungi of Maryland, unpublished manuscript, colour illustrations.
New York State Museum. New taxa : Bommer described more than new fungal taxa, including the genera Chitonospora E. Bommer, M.http://smtp.manualcoursemarket.com/93-chloroquine-diphosphate.php
Naming names: the first women taxonomists in mycology
Winter ex E. Rousseau, Pteromyces E. Almost all novelties were published in collaboration with Mariette Rousseau see below , and many also with Pier Andrea Saccardo. Many of the new species came from Belgium and the Netherlands, but also from around the globe, as far afield as Lapataia in Tierra de Fuego, from whence came Chalara cyttariae E.
Rousseau on the host Cyttaria darwinii Berk. Eponomy : Bommerella Marchal , Lophiostoma bommerianum Sacc. Rousseau , Cucurbitaria destreeae Oudem.
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Together this trio make up half the initial group of six amateur female mycological taxonomists. Libert died before her Belgian successors became active in mycology, but they were aware of her contributions Rousseau : Bommer and Rousseau were also female pioneers in taxonomic mycology in their own right, being the first married women to name new fungal taxa, and the first pair of women to make up a mycological partnership.
Her early education was provided by one of the palace governesses, and from the age of ten she attended a boarding school in Vilvorde for six years.
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Long hours and monotonous work undermined her health, but she began studying botany to satisfy her intellectual curiosity. Professor and student married in , and they had at least two sons. Although they had access to the library of the Brussels Botanic Garden, it took Bommer and Rousseau hours of painful study to feel confident in their mycology.
Recognised as expert mycologists by their peers, Bommer and Rousseau began to be entrusted with the enumeration of other collectors' fungal herbaria. In her later years, Bommer took up painting flowers and mushrooms, and otherwise occupied her time with poetry and music. She died two days before her seventy-eighth birthday. In an obituary, Mariette Rousseau was careful to emphasise that her friend was always a woman before she was a scientist, and only took up botanical work in the evening after her domestic duties were completed Rousseau : Bommer's son, Charles — , also contributed to his parents' botanical legacy, graduating with a doctorate in botany from the Brussels University in , and having a career as a botanist and paleobotanist Creese a : Bommer E, Rousseau M Florule mycologique des environs de Bruxelles.
Primitiae Florae Costaericensis par Th. Durand et H. Nederlandsch Kruidkundig Archief , ser. Belgica en —— … Rapports scientifiques …. Handleiding tot het bepalen van de in Nederland groeiende hoogere Zwammen. Macdonald, Nijmegen, Netherlands. Eponomy : Roussoella Sacc. Bommer Scientific publications : nine see Bommer's publications, above. Mariette Rousseau. Courtesy Mu. ZEE en Permekemuseum, Ostend.
In , she married Ernest Rousseau, a professor of zoology and rector at Brussels University. He was also a friend of her father's, and 28 years her senior. A sociable couple, their house became a well-known salon for the city's left-wing, intellectual and artistic elite, such as artist James Ensor. All of Rousseau's publications were with Bommer, and she stopped collecting after Bommer's death in Thereafter she used her time to curate the mycological collection at the Brussels Botanic Garden, where she was given space to work.
Her obituarist claimed that she reigned silently in room VIII, almost ignored, and surrounded by cupboards and mountains of herbarium sheets Beeli : Known for her fungal expertise, she encouraged younger workers to take up mycology, and welcomed all comers to her work-room Beeli : In two years before her death, Rousseau was made a Knight of the Order of Leopold, Belgium's highest order. More recently she was commemorated in the genus Roussoellopsis.
New taxa : novel taxa introduced by Smith include the family Cryptotheciaceae , and the genera Ampullaria A. In all she described more than novel taxa, including more than two new species in each of the genera Aecidium , Arthopyrenia , Ascochyta , Coniothyrium , Dothidella , Lachnella , Lecanora , Lecidea , Libertella , Phyllosticta and Stagonospora. Eponomy : Pseudophacidium smithianum Boud. Knowles The sixth and final woman to become a taxonomic mycologist before the turn of the century, despite lacking a tertiary education, was Annie Lorrain Smith Fig.
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By the s, when Smith coined her first fungal taxon, she had a small cohort of well-educated female peers, mainly in the USA, who had university degrees. Some of these women even had professional positions, and new taxa to their names. In the UK, access to tertiary education remained problematic and while a number of amateur British women continued to publish on fungi, Smith did not have female peers who contributed to taxonomic mycology until after the turn of the century. While her brothers attended the University of Edinburgh and three later became professors , Annie was not able to do so.
In , when she was fifteen, the Edinburgh Seven became the first group of matriculated undergraduate female students at a British university, but were prevented from graduating after a hostile and at times violent campaign by opponents to female higher education Elston Smith impressed Scott with her abilities, and through his influence she was hired to curate Anton de Bary's collection of slides of microscopical fungi at he Natural History Museum, London BM.
Dedicating herself to mycology, Smith soon became responsible for identifying most of the incoming collections of fungi. Her first new taxon, Cycloderma apiculatum A. Numerous new taxa from overseas and the UK followed. From , Smith worked on lichens, finalising the second volume of James Crombie's Monograph of the British Lichens , and revising a second edition , In her own right, she published a Handbook of British Lichens and Lichens , a standard text book for more than fifty years. A member of the Essex Field Club, Smith was also a founding member of the British Mycological Society of which she was twice president.
In , she was in the first group of female fellows of the Linnean Society along with Guielma Lister, see below , and served on its council, — In , she attended the eighty-fourth meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science that was held in Australia and also visited the USA Creese Smith was honoured in a lichenised fungus by friend and colleague Irish cryptogamic botanist Matilda Cullen Knowles — Described in , Verrucaria lorrain-smithiae M.
Knowles was based on a specimen collected at Balscadden Bay, Ireland Knowles Knowles herself became an early contributor to mycology, but did not begin publishing in this discipline until after the turn of the century Creese a : Smith never married and lived with a sister for fifty years.
Retiring on a civil service pension in , she was also awarded an OBE for her contributions to cryptogamic botany. After a few years of poor health, she died at home in her eighty-third year.